Release notes

Version 0.22.0 (November 10, 2021)

JuMP v0.22 is a breaking release

Breaking changes

JuMP 0.22 contains a number of breaking changes. However, these should be invisible for the majority of users. You will mostly encounter these breaking changes if you: wrote a JuMP extension, accessed backend(model), or called @SDconstraint.

The breaking changes are as follows:

  • MathOptInterface has been updated to v0.10.4. For users who have interacted with the MOI backend, this contains a large number of breaking changes. Read the MathOptInterface release notes for more details.
  • The bridge_constraints keyword argument to Model and set_optimizer has been renamed add_bridges to reflect that more thing were bridged than just constraints.
  • The backend(model) field now contains a concrete instance of a MOI.Utilities.CachingOptimizer instead of one with an abstractly typed optimizer field. In most cases, this will lead to improved performance. However, calling set_optimizer after backend invalidates the old backend. For example:
    model = Model()
    b = backend(model)
    set_optimizer(model, GLPK.Optimizer)
    @variable(model, x)
    # b is not updated with `x`! Get a new b by calling `backend` again.
    new_b = backend(model)
  • All usages of @SDconstraint are deprecated. The new syntax is @constraint(model, X >= Y, PSDCone()).
  • Creating a DenseAxisArray with a Number as an axis will now display a warning. This catches a common error in which users write @variable(model, x[length(S)]) instead of @variable(model, x[1:length(S)]).
  • The caching_mode argument to Model, e.g., Model(caching_mode = MOIU.MANUAL) mode has been removed. For more control over the optimizer, use direct_model instead.
  • The previously deprecated lp_objective_perturbation_range and lp_rhs_perturbation_range functions have been removed. Use lp_sensitivity_report instead.
  • The .m fields of NonlinearExpression and NonlinearParameter have been renamed to .model.
  • Infinite variable bounds are now ignored. Thus, @variable(model, x <= Inf) will show has_upper_bound(x) == false. Previously, these bounds were passed through to the solvers which caused numerical issues for solvers expecting finite bounds.
  • The variable_type and constraint_type functions were removed. This should only affect users who previously wrote JuMP extensions. The functions can be deleted without consequence.
  • The internal functions moi_mode, moi_bridge_constraints, moi_add_constraint, and moi_add_to_function_constant are no longer exported.
  • The un-used method Containers.generate_container has been deleted.
  • The Containers API has been refactored, and _build_ref_sets is now public as Containers.build_ref_sets.
  • The parse_constraint_ methods for extending @constraint at parse time have been refactored in a breaking way. Consult the Extensions documentation for more details and examples.

New features

  • The TerminationStatusCode and ResultStatusCode enums are now exported by JuMP. Prefer termination_status(model) == OPTIMAL instead of == MOI.OPTIMAL, although the MOI. prefix way still works.
  • Copy a x::DenseAxisArray to an Array by calling Array(x).
  • NonlinearExpression is now a subtype of AbstractJuMPScalar
  • Constraints such as @constraint(model, x + 1 in MOI.Integer()) are now supported.
  • primal_feasibility_report now accepts a function as the first argument.
  • Scalar variables @variable(model, x[1:2] in MOI.Integer()) creates two variables, both of which are constrained to be in the set MOI.Integer.
  • Conic constraints can now be specified as inequalities under a different partial ordering. So @constraint(model, x - y in MOI.Nonnegatives()) can now be written as @constraint(model, x >= y, MOI.Nonnegatives()).
  • Names are now set for vectorized constraints.

Documentation, maintenance and performance

  • The documentation is now available as a PDF.
  • The documentation now includes a full copy of the MathOptInterface documentation to make it easy to link concepts between the docs. (The MathOptInterface documentation has also been significantly improved.)
  • The documentation contains a large number of improvements and clarifications on a range of topics. Thanks to @sshin23, @DilumAluthge, and @jlwether.
  • The documentation is now built with Julia 1.6 instead of 1.0.
  • Various error messages have been improved to be more readable.
  • Fixed a performance issue when show was called on a SparseAxisArray with a large number of elements.
  • Fixed a bug displaying barrier and simplex iterations in solution_summary.
  • Fixed a bug by implementing hash for DenseAxisArray and SparseAxisArray.
  • Names are now only set if the solver supports them. Previously, this prevented solvers such as Ipopt from being used with direct_model.
  • MutableArithmetics.Zero is converted into a 0.0 before being returned to the user. Previously, some calls to @expression would return the undocumented MutableArithmetics.Zero() object. One example is summing over an empty set @expression(model, sum(x[i] for i in 1:0)). You will now get 0.0 instead.
  • AffExpr and QuadExpr can now be used with == 0 instead of iszero. This fixes a number of issues relating to Julia standard libraries such as LinearAlgebra and SparseArrays.
  • Fixed a bug when registering a user-defined function with splatting.

Version 0.21.10 (September 4, 2021)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • Add add_NL_expression
    • add_NL_xxx functions now support AffExpr and QuadExpr as terms
  • Documentation, maintenance and performance:
    • Fix bug in solution_summary
    • Fix bug in relax_integrality
    • Improve error message in lp_sensitivity_report

Version 0.21.9 (August 1, 2021)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • Containers now support arbitrary container types by passing the type to the container keyword and overloading Containers.container.
    • is_valid now supports nonlinear constraints
    • Added unsafe_backend for querying the inner-most optimizer of a JuMP model.
    • Nonlinear parameters now support the plural @NLparameters macro.
    • Containers (e.g., DenseAxisArray) can now be used in vector-valued constraints.
  • Documentation, maintenance and performance:
    • Various improvements to the documentation.

Version 0.21.8 (May 8, 2021)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • The @constraint macro is now extendable in the same way as @variable.
    • AffExpr and QuadExpr can now be used in nonlinear macros.
  • Bug fixes:
    • Fixed a bug in lp_sensitivity_report.
    • Fixed an inference issue when creating empty SparseAxisArrays.

Version 0.21.7 (April 12, 2021)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • Added primal_feasibility_report, which can be used to check whether a primal point satisfies primal feasibility.
    • Added coefficient, which returns the coefficient associated with a variable in affine and quadratic expressions.
    • Added copy_conflict, which returns the IIS of an infeasible model.
    • Added solution_summary, which returns (and prints) a struct containing a summary of the solution.
    • Allow AbstractVector in vector constraints instead of just Vector.
    • Added latex_formulation(model) which returns an object representing the latex formulation of a model. Use print(latex_formulation(model)) to print the formulation as a string.
    • User-defined functions in nonlinear expressions are now automatically registered to aid quick model prototyping. However, a warning is printed to encourage the manual registration.
    • DenseAxisArray's now support broadcasting over multiple arrays.
    • Container indices can now be iterators of Base.SizeUnknown.
  • Bug fixes:
    • Fixed bug in rad2deg and deg2rad in nonlinear expressions.
    • Fixed a MethodError bug in Containers when forcing container type.
    • Allow partial slicing of a DenseAxisArray, resolving an issue from 2014!
    • Fixed a bug printing variable names in IJulia.
    • Ending an IJulia cell with model now prints a summary of the model (like in the REPL) not the latex formulation. Use print(model) to print the latex formulation.
    • Fixed a bug when copying models containing nested arrays.
  • Documentation, performance improvements, and general maintenance:
    • Tutorials are now part of the documentation, and more refactoring has taken place.
    • Added JuliaFormatter added as a code formatter.
    • Added some precompilation statements to reduce initial latency.
    • Various improvements to error messages to make them more helpful.
    • Improved performance of value(::NonlinearExpression).
    • Improved performance of fix(::VariableRef).

Version 0.21.6 (January 29, 2021)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • Added support for skew symmetric variables via @variable(model, X[1:2, 1:2] in SkewSymmetricMatrixSpace()).
    • lp_sensitivity_report has been added which significantly improves the performance of querying the sensitivity summary of an LP. lp_objective_perturbation_range and lp_rhs_perturbation_range are deprecated.
    • Dual warm-starts are now supported with set_dual_start_value and dual_start_value.
    • (\in<tab>) can now be used in macros instead of = or in.
    • Use haskey(model::Model, key::Symbol) to check if a name key is registered in a model.
    • Added unregister(model::Model, key::Symbol) to unregister a name key from model.
    • Added callback_node_status for use in callbacks.
    • Added print_bridge_graph to visualize the bridging graph generated by MathOptInterface.
    • Improved error message for containers with duplicate indices.
  • Bug fixes:
    • Various fixes to pass tests on Julia 1.6.
    • Fixed a bug in the printing of nonlinear expressions in IJulia.
    • Fixed a bug when nonlinear expressions are passed to user-defined functions.
    • Some internal functions that were previously exported are now no longer exported.
    • Fixed a bug when relaxing a fixed binary variable.
    • Fixed a StackOverflowError that occurred when SparseAxisArrays had a large number of elements.
    • Removed an unnecessary type assertion in list_of_constraint_types.
    • Fixed a bug when copying models with registered expressions.
  • Documentation and general maintenance:
    • The documentation has been significantly overhauled. It now has distinct sections for the manual, API reference, and examples. The existing examples in /examples have now been moved to /docs/src/examples and rewritten using Literate.jl, and they are now included in the documentation.
    • JuliaFormatter has been applied to most of the codebase. This will continue to roll out over time, as we fix upstream issues in the formatter, and will eventually become compulsory.
    • The root cause of a large number of method invalidations has been resolved.
    • We switched continuous integration from Travis and Appveyor to Github Actions.

Version 0.21.5 (September 18, 2020)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • Fix deprecation warnings
  • Throw DimensionMismatch for incompatibly sized functions and sets
  • Unify treatment of keys(x) on JuMP containers

Version 0.21.4 (September 14, 2020)

For a detailed list of the closed issues and pull requests from this release, see the tag notes. A summary of changes are as follows:

  • New features:
    • Add debug info when adding unsupported constraints
    • Add relax_integrality for solving continuous relaxation
    • Allow querying constraint conflicts
  • Bug fixes:
    • Dispatch on Real for MOI.submit
    • Implement copy for CustomSet in tests
    • Don't export private macros
    • Fix invalid assertion in nonlinear
  • Error if constraint has NaN right-hand side
  • Improve speed of tests
    • Lots of work modularizing files in /test
  • Improve line numbers in macro error messages
  • Print nonlinear subexpressions
  • Various documentation updates
  • Dependency updates:
    • Datastructures 0.18
    • MathOptFormat v0.5
    • Prep for MathOptInterface 0.9.15

Version 0.21.3 (June 18, 2020)

  • Added Special Order Sets (SOS1 and SOS2) to JuMP with default weights to ease the creation of such constraints (#2212).
  • Added functions simplex_iterations, barrier_iterations and node_count (#2201).
  • Added function reduced_cost (#2205).
  • Implemented callback_value for affine and quadratic expressions (#2231).
  • Support MutableArithmetics.Zero in objective and constraints (#2219).
  • Documentation improvements:
    • Mention tutorials in the docs (#2223).
    • Update COIN-OR links (#2242).
    • Explicit link to the documentation of MOI.FileFormats (#2253).
    • Typo fixes (#2261).
  • Containers improvements:
    • Fix for DenseAxisArray (#2235).
    • Throw BoundsError if number of indices is incorrect for DenseAxisArray and SparseAxisArray (#2240).
  • Extensibility improvements:
    • Implement a set_objective method fallback that redirects to set_objective_sense and set_objective_function (#2247).
    • Add parse_constraint method with arbitrary number of arguments (#2051).
    • Add parse_constraint_expr and parse_constraint_head (#2228).

Version 0.21.2 (April 2, 2020)

  • Added relative_gap() to access MOI.RelativeGap() attribute (#2199).
  • Documentation fixes:
    • Added link to source for docstrings in the documentation (#2207).
    • Added docstring for @variables macro (#2216).
    • Typo fixes (#2177, #2184, #2182).
  • Implementation of methods for Base functions:
    • Implemented Base.empty! for JuMP.Model (#2198).
    • Implemented Base.conj for JuMP scalar types (#2209).
  • Bug fixes:
    • Fixed sum of expression with scalar product in macro (#2178).
    • Fixed writing of nonlinear models to MathOptFormat (#2181).
    • Fixed construction of empty SparseAxisArray (#2179).
    • Fixed constraint with zero function (#2188).

Version 0.21.1 (Feb 18, 2020)

  • Improved the clarity of the with_optimizer deprecation warning.

Version 0.21 (Feb 16, 2020)

Breaking changes:

  • Deprecated with_optimizer (#2090, #2084, #2141). You can replace with_optimizer by either nothing, optimizer_with_attributes or a closure:

    • replace with_optimizer(Ipopt.Optimizer) by Ipopt.Optimizer.
    • replace with_optimizer(Ipopt.Optimizer, max_cpu_time=60.0) by optimizer_with_attributes(Ipopt.Optimizer, "max_cpu_time" => 60.0).
    • replace with_optimizer(Gurobi.Optimizer, env) by () -> Gurobi.Optimizer(env).
    • replace with_optimizer(Gurobi.Optimizer, env, Presolve=0) by optimizer_with_attributes(() -> Gurobi.Optimizer(env), "Presolve" => 0).

    alternatively to optimizer_with_attributes, you can also set the attributes separately with set_optimizer_attribute.

  • Renamed set_parameter and set_parameters to set_optimizer_attribute and set_optimizer_attributes (#2150).

  • Broadcast should now be explicit inside macros. @SDconstraint(model, x >= 1) and @constraint(model, x + 1 in SecondOrderCone()) now throw an error instead of broadcasting 1 along the dimension of x (#2107).

  • @SDconstraint(model, x >= 0) is now equivalent to @constraint(model, x in PSDCone()) instead of @constraint(model, (x .- 0) in PSDCone()) (#2107).

  • The macros now create the containers with map instead of for loops, as a consequence, containers created by @expression can now have any element type and containers of constraint references now have concrete element types when possible. This fixes a long-standing issue where @expression could only be used to generate a collection of linear expressions. Now it works for quadratic expressions as well (#2070).

  • Calling deepcopy(::AbstractModel) now throws an error.

  • The constraint name is now printed in the model string (#2108).

New features:

  • Added support for solver-independent and solver-specific callbacks (#2101).
  • Added write_to_file and read_from_file, supported formats are CBF, LP, MathOptFormat, MPS and SDPA (#2114).
  • Added support for complementarity constraints (#2132).
  • Added support for indicator constraints (#2092).
  • Added support for querying multiple solutions with the result keyword (#2100).
  • Added support for constraining variables on creation (#2128).
  • Added method delete that deletes a vector of variables at once if it is supported by the underlying solver (#2135).
  • The arithmetic between JuMP expression has be refactored into the MutableArithmetics package (#2107).
  • Improved error on complex values in NLP (#1978).
  • Added an example of column generation (#2010).

Bug fixes:

  • Incorrect coefficients generated when using Symmetric variables (#2102)

Version 0.20.1 (Oct 18, 2019)

  • Add sections on @variables and @constraints in the documentation (#2062).
  • Fixed product of sparse matrices for Julia v1.3 (#2063).
  • Added set_objective_coefficient to modify the coefficient of a linear term of the objective function (#2008).
  • Added set_time_limit_sec, unset_time_limit_sec and time_limit_sec to set and query the time limit for the solver in seconds (#2053).

Version 0.20.0 (Aug 24, 2019)

  • Documentation updates.
  • Numerous bug fixes.
  • Better error messages (#1977, #1978, #1997, #2017).
  • Performance improvements (#1947, #2032).
  • Added LP sensitivity summary functions lp_objective_perturbation_range and lp_rhs_perturbation_range (#1917).
  • Added functions dual_objective_value, raw_status and set_parameter.
  • Added function set_objective_coefficient to modify the coefficient of a linear term of the objective (#2008).
  • Added functions set_normalized_rhs, normalized_rhs, and add_to_function_constant to modify and get the constant part of a constraint (#1935, #1960).
  • Added functions set_normalized_coefficient and normalized_coefficient to modify and get the coefficient of a linear term of a constraint (#1935, #1960).
  • Numerous other improvements in MOI 0.9, see the file of MOI for more details.

Version 0.19.2 (June 8, 2019)

  • Fix a bug in derivatives that could arise in models with nested nonlinear subexpressions.

Version 0.19.1 (May 12, 2019)

  • Usability and performance improvements.
  • Bug fixes.

Version 0.19.0 (February 15, 2019)

JuMP 0.19 contains significant breaking changes.

Breaking changes:

  • JuMP's abstraction layer for communicating with solvers changed from MathProgBase (MPB) to MathOptInterface (MOI). MOI addresses many longstanding design issues. (See @mlubin's slides from JuMP-dev 2018.) JuMP 0.19 is compatible only with solvers that have been updated for MOI. See the installation guide for a list of solvers that have and have not yet been updated.

  • Most solvers have been renamed to PackageName.Optimizer. For example, GurobiSolver() is now Gurobi.Optimizer.

  • Solvers are no longer added to a model via Model(solver = XXX(kwargs...)). Instead use Model(with_optimizer(XXX, kwargs...)). For example, Model(with_optimizer(Gurobi.Optimizer, OutputFlag=0)).

  • JuMP containers (e.g., the objects returned by @variable) have been redesigned. Containers.SparseAxisArray replaces JuMPDict, JuMPArray was rewritten (inspired by AxisArrays) and renamed Containers.DenseAxisArray, and you can now request a container type with the container= keyword to the macros. See the corresponding documentation for more details.

  • The statuses returned by solvers have changed. See the possible status values here. The MOI statuses are much richer than the MPB statuses and can be used to distinguish between previously indistinguishable cases (e.g. did the solver have a feasible solution when it stopped because of the time limit?).

  • Starting values are separate from result values. Use value to query the value of a variable in a solution. Use start_value and set_start_value to get and set an initial starting point provided to the solver. The solutions from previous solves are no longer automatically set as the starting points for the next solve.

  • The data structures for affine and quadratic expressions AffExpr and QuadExpr have changed. Internally, terms are stored in dictionaries instead of lists. Duplicate coefficients can no longer exist. Accessors and iteration methods have changed.

  • JuMPNLPEvaluator no longer includes the linear and quadratic parts of the model in the evaluation calls. These are now handled separately to allow NLP solvers that support various types of constraints.

  • JuMP solver-independent callbacks have been replaced by solver-specific callbacks. See your favorite solver for more details. (See the note below: No solver-specific callbacks are implemented yet.)

  • The norm() syntax is no longer recognized inside macros. Use the SecondOrderCone() set instead.

  • JuMP no longer performs automatic transformation between special quadratic forms and second-order cone constraints. Support for these constraint classes depends on the solver.

  • The symbols :Min and :Max are no longer used as optimization senses. Instead, JuMP uses the OptimizationSense enum from MathOptInterface. @objective(model, Max, ...), @objective(model, Min, ...), @NLobjective(model, Max, ...), and @objective(model, Min, ...) remain valid, but @objective(m, :Max, ...) is no longer accepted.

  • The sign conventions for duals has changed in some cases for consistency with conic duality (see the documentation). The shadow_price helper method returns duals with signs that match conventional LP interpretations of dual values as sensitivities of the objective value to relaxations of constraints.

  • @constraintref is no longer defined. Instead, create the appropriate container to hold constraint references manually. For example,

    constraints = Dict() # Optionally, specify types for improved performance.
    for i in 1:N
      constraints[i] = @constraint(model, ...)
  • The lowerbound, upperbound, and basename keyword arguments to the @variable macro have been renamed to lower_bound, upper_bound, and base_name, for consistency with JuMP's new style recommendations.

  • We rely on broadcasting syntax to apply accessors to collections of variables, e.g., value.(x) instead of getvalue(x) for collections. (Use value(x) when x is a scalar object.)

New features:

  • Splatting (like f(x...)) is recognized in restricted settings in nonlinear expressions.

  • Support for deleting constraints and variables.

  • The documentation has been completely rewritten using docstrings and Documenter.

  • Support for modeling mixed conic and quadratic models (e.g., conic models with quadratic objectives and bi-linear matrix inequalities).

  • Significantly improved support for modeling new types of constraints and for extending JuMP's macros.

  • Support for providing dual warm starts.

  • Improved support for accessing solver-specific attributes (e.g., the irreducible inconsistent subsystem).

  • Explicit control of whether symmetry-enforcing constraints are added to PSD constraints.

  • Support for modeling exponential cones.

  • Significant improvements in internal code quality and testing.

  • Style and naming guidelines.

  • Direct mode and manual mode provide explicit control over when copies of a model are stored or regenerated. See the corresponding documentation.

There are known regressions from JuMP 0.18 that will be addressed in a future release (0.19.x or later):

  • Performance regressions in model generation (issue). Please file an issue anyway if you notice a significant performance regression. We have plans to address a number of performance issues, but we might not be aware of all of them.

  • Fast incremental NLP solves are not yet reimplemented (issue).

  • We do not yet have an implementation of solver-specific callbacks.

  • The column generation syntax in @variable has been removed (i.e., the objective, coefficients, and inconstraints keyword arguments). Support for column generation will be re-introduced in a future release.

  • The ability to solve the continuous relaxation (i.e. via solve(model; relaxation = true)) is not yet reimplemented (issue).

Version 0.18.5 (December 1, 2018)

  • Support views in some derivative evaluation functions.
  • Improved compatibility with PackageCompiler.

Version 0.18.4 (October 8, 2018)

  • Fix a bug in model printing on Julia 0.7 and 1.0.

Version 0.18.3 (October 1, 2018)

  • Add support for Julia v1.0 (Thanks @ExpandingMan)
  • Fix matrix expressions with quadratic functions (#1508)

Version 0.18.2 (June 10, 2018)

  • Fix a bug in second-order derivatives when expressions are present (#1319)
  • Fix a bug in @constraintref (#1330)

Version 0.18.1 (April 9, 2018)

  • Fix for nested tuple destructuring (#1193)
  • Preserve internal model when relaxation=true (#1209)
  • Minor bug fixes and updates for example

Version 0.18.0 (July 27, 2017)

  • Drop support for Julia 0.5.
  • Update for ForwardDiff 0.5.
  • Minor bug fixes.

Version 0.17.1 (June 9, 2017)

  • Use of constructconstraint! in @SDconstraint.
  • Minor bug fixes.

Version 0.17.0 (May 27, 2017)

  • Breaking change: Mixing quadratic and conic constraints is no longer supported.
  • Breaking change: The $getvariable$ and $getconstraint$ functions are replaced by indexing on the corresponding symbol. For instance, to access the variable with name $x$, one should now write $m[:x]$ instead of $getvariable(m, :x)$. As a consequence, creating a variable and constraint with the same name now triggers a warning, and accessing one of them afterwards throws an error. This change is breaking only in the latter case.
  • Addition of the $getobjectivebound$ function that mirrors the functionality of the MathProgBase $getobjbound$ function except that it takes into account transformations performed by JuMP.
  • Minor bug fixes.

The following changes are primarily of interest to developers of JuMP extensions:

  • The new syntax $@constraint(model, expr in Cone)$ creates the constraint ensuring that $expr$ is inside $Cone$. The $Cone$ argument is passed to $constructconstraint!$ which enables the call to the dispatched to an extension.
  • The $@variable$ macro now calls $constructvariable!$ instead of directly calling the $Variable$ constructor. Extra arguments and keyword arguments passed to $@variable$ are passed to $constructvariable!$ which enables the call to be dispatched to an extension.
  • Refactor the internal function $conicdata$ (used build the MathProgBase conic model) into smaller subfunctions to make these parts reusable by extensions.

Version 0.16.2 (March 28, 2017)

  • Minor bug fixes and printing tweaks
  • Address deprecation warnings for Julia 0.6

Version 0.16.1 (March 7, 2017)

  • Better support for $AbstractArray$ in JuMP (Thanks @tkoolen)
  • Minor bug fixes

Version 0.16.0 (February 23, 2017)

  • Breaking change: JuMP no longer has a mechanism for selecting solvers by default (the previous mechanism was flawed and incompatible with Julia 0.6). Not specifying a solver before calling $solve()$ will result in an error.
  • Breaking change: User-defined functions are no longer global. The first argument to $JuMP.register$ is now a JuMP $Model$ object within whose scope the function will be registered. Calling $JuMP.register$ without a $Model$ now produces an error.
  • Breaking change: Use the new $JuMP.fix$ method to fix a variable to a value or to update the value to which a variable is fixed. Calling $setvalue$ on a fixed variable now results in an error in order to avoid silent behavior changes. (Thanks @joaquimg)
  • Nonlinear expressions now print out similarly to linear/quadratic expressions (useful for debugging!)
  • New $category$ keyword to $@variable$. Used for specifying categories of anonymous variables.
  • Compatibility with Julia 0.6-dev.
  • Minor fixes and improvements (Thanks @cossio, @ccoffrin, @blegat)

Version 0.15.1 (January 31, 2017)

  • Bugfix for $@LinearConstraints$ and friends

Version 0.15.0 (December 22, 2016)

  • Julia 0.5.0 is the minimum required version for this release.
  • Document support for BARON solver
  • Enable info callbacks in more states than before, e.g. for recording solutions. New $when$ argument to $addinfocallback$ (#814, thanks @yeesian)
  • Improved support for anonymous variables. This includes new warnings for potentially confusing use of the traditional non-anonymous syntax:
    • When multiple variables in a model are given the same name
    • When non-symbols are used as names, e.g., $@variable(m, x[1][1:N])$
  • Improvements in iterating over JuMP containers (#836, thanks @IssamT)
  • Support for writing variable names in .lp file output (Thanks @leethargo)
  • Support for querying duals to SDP problems (Thanks @blegat)
  • The comprehension syntax with curly braces $sum{}$, $prod{}$, and $norm2{}$ has been deprecated in favor of Julia's native comprehension syntax $sum()$, $prod()$ and $norm()$ as previously announced. (For early adopters of the new syntax, $norm2()$ was renamed to $norm()$ without deprecation.)
  • Unit tests rewritten to use Base.Test instead of FactCheck
  • Improved support for operations with matrices of JuMP types (Thanks @ExpandingMan)
  • The syntax to halt a solver from inside a callback has changed from $throw(CallbackAbort())$ to $return JuMP.StopTheSolver$
  • Minor bug fixes

Version 0.14.2 (December 12, 2016)

  • Allow singeton anonymous variables (includes bugfix)

Version 0.14.1 (September 12, 2016)

  • More consistent handling of states in informational callbacks, includes a new $when$ parameter to $addinfocallback$ for specifying in which state an informational callback should be called.

Version 0.14.0 (August 7, 2016)

  • Compatibility with Julia 0.5 and ForwardDiff 0.2
  • Support for "anonymous" variables, constraints, expressions, and parameters, e.g., $x = @variable(m, [1:N])$ instead of $@variable(m, x[1:N])$
  • Support for retrieving constraints from a model by name via $getconstraint$
  • $@NLconstraint$ now returns constraint references (as expected).
  • Support for vectorized expressions within lazy constraints
  • On Julia 0.5, parse new comprehension syntax $sum(x[i] for i in 1:N if isodd(i))$ instead of $sum{ x[i], i in 1:N; isodd(i) }$. The old syntax with curly braces will be deprecated in JuMP 0.15.
  • Now possible to provide nonlinear expressions as "raw" Julia $Expr$ objects instead of using JuMP's nonlinear macros. This input format is useful for programmatically generated expressions.
  • $s/Mathematical Programming/Mathematical Optimization/$
  • Support for local cuts (Thanks to @madanim, Mehdi Madani)
  • Document Xpress interface developed by @joaquimg, Joaquim Dias Garcia
  • Minor bug and deprecation fixes (Thanks @odow, @jrevels)

Version 0.13.2 (May 16, 2016)

  • Compatibility update for MathProgBase

Version 0.13.1 (May 3, 2016)

  • Fix broken deprecation for $registerNLfunction$.

Version 0.13.0 (April 29, 2016)

  • Most exported methods and macros have been renamed to avoid camelCase. See the list of changes here. There is a 1-1 mapping from the old names to the new, and it is safe to simply replace the names to update existing models.
  • Specify variable lower/upper bounds in $@variable$ using the $lowerbound$ and $upperbound$ keyword arguments.
  • Change name printed for variable using the $basename$ keyword argument to $@variable$.
  • New $@variables$ macro allows multiline declaration of groups of variables.
  • A number of solver methods previously available only through MathProgBase are now exposed directly in JuMP. The fix was recorded live!
  • Compatibility fixes with Julia 0.5.
  • The "end" indexing syntax is no longer supported within JuMPArrays which do not use 1-based indexing until upstream issues are resolved, see here.

Version 0.12.2 (March 9, 2016)

  • Small fixes for nonlinear optimization

Version 0.12.1 (March 1, 2016)

  • Fix a regression in slicing for JuMPArrays (when not using 1-based indexing)

Version 0.12.0 (February 27, 2016)

  • The automatic differentiation functionality has been completely rewritten with a number of user-facing changes:
    • $@defExpr$ and $@defNLExpr$ now take the model as the first argument. The previous one-argument version of $@defExpr$ is deprecated; all expressions should be named. E.g., replace $@defExpr(2x+y)$ with $@defExpr(jump_model, my_expr, 2x+y)$.
    • JuMP no longer uses Julia's variable binding rules for efficiently re-solving a sequence of nonlinear models. Instead, we have introduced nonlinear parameters. This is a breaking change, so we have added a warning message when we detect models that may depend on the old behavior.
    • Support for user-defined functions integrated within nonlinear JuMP expressions.
  • Replaced iteration over $AffExpr$ with $Number$-like scalar iteration; previous iteration behavior is now available via $linearterms(::AffExpr)$.
  • Stopping the solver via $throw(CallbackAbort())$ from a callback no longer triggers an exception. Instead, $solve()$ returns $UserLimit$ status.
  • $getDual()$ now works for conic problems (Thanks @emreyamangil.)

Version 0.11.3 (February 4, 2016)

  • Bug-fix for problems with quadratic objectives and semidefinite constraints

Version 0.11.2 (January 14, 2016)

  • Compatibility update for Mosek

Version 0.11.1 (December 1, 2015)

  • Remove usage of @compat in tests.
  • Fix updating quadratic objectives for nonlinear models.

Version 0.11.0 (November 30, 2015)

  • Julia 0.4.0 is the minimum required version for this release.
  • Fix for scoping semantics of index variables in sum{}. Index variables no longer leak into the surrounding scope.
  • Addition of the $solve(m::Model, relaxation=true)$ keyword argument to solve the standard continuous realaxation of model $m$
  • The $getConstraintBounds()$ method allows access to the lower and upper bounds of all constraints in a (nonlinear) model.
  • Update for breaking changes in MathProgBase

Version 0.10.3 (November 20, 2015)

  • Fix a rare error when parsing quadratic expressions
  • Fix $Variable()$ constructor with default arguments
  • Detect unrecognized keywords in $solve()$

Version 0.10.2 (September 28, 2015)

  • Fix for deprecation warnings

Version 0.10.1 (September 3, 2015)

  • Fixes for ambiguity warnings.
  • Fix for breaking change in precompilation syntax in Julia 0.4-pre

Version 0.10.0 (August 31, 2015)

  • Support (on Julia 0.4 and later) for conditions in indexing $@defVar$ and $@addConstraint$ constructs, e.g. $@defVar(m, x[i=1:5,j=1:5; i+j >= 3])$
  • Support for vectorized operations on Variables and expressions. See the documentation for details.
  • New $getVar()$ method to access variables in a model by name
  • Support for semidefinite programming.
  • Dual solutions are now available for general nonlinear problems. You may call $getDual$ on a reference object for a nonlinear constraint, and $getDual$ on a variable object for Lagrange multipliers from active bounds.
  • Introduce warnings for two common performance traps: too many calls to $getValue()$ on a collection of variables and use of the $+$ operator in a loop to sum expressions.
  • Second-order cone constraints can be written directly with the $norm()$ and $norm2{}$ syntax.
  • Implement MathProgBase interface for querying Hessian-vector products.
  • Iteration over $JuMPContainer$s is deprecated; instead, use the $keys$ and $values$ functions, and $zip(keys(d),values(d))$ for the old behavior.
  • $@defVar$ returns $Array{Variable,N}$ when each of $N$ index sets are of the form $1:nᵢ$.
  • Module precompilation: on Julia 0.4 and later, $using JuMP$ is now much faster.

Version 0.9.3 (August 11, 2015)

  • Fixes for FactCheck testing on julia v0.4.

Version 0.9.2 (June 27, 2015)

  • Fix bug in @addConstraints.

Version 0.9.1 (April 25, 2015)

  • Fix for Julia 0.4-dev.
  • Small infrastructure improvements for extensions.

Version 0.9.0 (April 18, 2015)

  • Comparison operators for constructing constraints (e.g. $2x >= 1$) have been deprecated. Instead, construct the constraints explicitly in the $@addConstraint$ macro to add them to the model, or in the $@LinearConstraint$ macro to create a stand-alone linear constraint instance.
  • $getValue()$ method implemented to compute the value of a nonlinear subexpression
  • JuMP is now released under the Mozilla Public License version 2.0 (was previously LGPL). MPL is a copyleft license which is less restrictive than LGPL, especially for embedding JuMP within other applications.
  • A number of performance improvements in ReverseDiffSparse for computing derivatives.
  • $MathProgBase.getsolvetime(m)$ now returns the solution time reported by the solver, if available. (Thanks @odow, Oscar Dowson)
  • Formatting fix for LP format output. (Thanks @sbebo, Leonardo Taccari).

Version 0.8.0 (February 17, 2015)

  • Nonlinear subexpressions now supported with the $@defNLExpr$ macro.
  • SCS supported for solving second-order conic problems.
  • $setXXXCallback$ family deprecated in favor of $addXXXCallback$.
  • Multiple callbacks of the same type can be registered.
  • Added support for informational callbacks via $addInfoCallback$.
  • A $CallbackAbort$ exception can be thrown from callback to safely exit optimization.

Version 0.7.4 (February 4, 2015)

  • Reduced costs and linear constraint duals are now accessible when quadratic constraints are present.
  • Two-sided nonlinear constraints are supported.
  • Methods for accessing the number of variables and constraints in a model are renamed.
  • New default procedure for setting initial values in nonlinear optimization: project zero onto the variable bounds.
  • Small bug fixes.

Version 0.7.3 (January 14, 2015)

  • Fix a method ambiguity conflict with Compose.jl (cosmetic fix)

Version 0.7.2 (January 9, 2015)

  • Fix a bug in $sum(::JuMPDict)$
  • Added the $setCategory$ function to change a variables category (e.g. continuous or binary)

after construction, and $getCategory$ to retrieve the variable category.

Version 0.7.1 (January 2, 2015)

  • Fix a bug in parsing linear expressions in macros. Affects only Julia 0.4 and later.

Version 0.7.0 (December 29, 2014)

Linear/quadratic/conic programming

  • Breaking change: The syntax for column-wise model generation has been changed to use keyword arguments in $@defVar$.
  • On Julia 0.4 and later, variables and coefficients may be multiplied in any order within macros. That is, variable*coefficient is now valid syntax.
  • ECOS supported for solving second-order conic problems.

Nonlinear programming

  • Support for skipping model generation when solving a sequence of nonlinear models with changing data.
  • Fix a memory leak when solving a sequence of nonlinear models.
  • The $@addNLConstraint$ macro now supports the three-argument version to define sets of nonlinear constraints.
  • KNITRO supported as a nonlinear solver.
  • Speed improvements for model generation.
  • The $@addNLConstraints$ macro supports adding multiple (groups of) constraints at once. Syntax is similar to $@addConstraints$.
  • Discrete variables allowed in nonlinear problems for solvers which support them (currently only KNITRO).


  • Starting values for variables may now be specified with $@defVar(m, x, start=value)$.
  • The $setSolver$ function allows users to change the solver subsequent to model creation.
  • Support for "fixed" variables via the $@defVar(m, x == 1)$ syntax.
  • Unit tests rewritten to use FactCheck.jl, improved testing across solvers.

Version 0.6.3 (October 19, 2014)

  • Fix a bug in multiplying two AffExpr objects.

Version 0.6.2 (October 11, 2014)

  • Further improvements and bug fixes for printing.
  • Fixed a bug in $@defExpr$.
  • Support for accessing expression graphs through the MathProgBase NLP interface.

Version 0.6.1 (September 19, 2014)

  • Improvements and bug fixes for printing.

Version 0.6.0 (September 9, 2014)

  • Julia 0.3.0 is the minimum required version for this release.
  • $buildInternalModel(m::Model)$ added to build solver-level model in memory without optimizing.
  • Deprecate $load_model_only$ keyword argument to $solve$.
  • Add groups of constraints with $@addConstraints$ macro.
  • Unicode operators now supported, including $∑$ for $sum$, $∏$ for $prod$, and $≤$/$≥$
  • Quadratic constraints supported in $@addConstraint$ macro.
  • Quadratic objectives supported in $@setObjective$ macro.
  • MathProgBase solver-independent interface replaces Ipopt-specific interface for nonlinear problems
    • Breaking change: $IpoptOptions$ no longer supported to specify solver options, use $m = Model(solver=IpoptSolver(options...))$ instead.
  • New solver interfaces: ECOS, NLopt, and nonlinear support for MOSEK
  • New option to control whether the lazy constraint callback is executed at each node in the B&B tree or just when feasible solutions are found
  • Add support for semicontinuous and semi-integer variables for those solvers that support them.
  • Add support for index dependencies (e.g. triangular indexing) in $@defVar$, $@addConstraint$, and $@defExpr$ (e.g. $@defVar(m, x[i=1:10,j=i:10])$).
    • This required some changes to the internal structure of JuMP containers, which may break code that explicitly stored $JuMPDict$ objects.

Version 0.5.8 (September 24, 2014)

  • Fix a bug with specifying solvers (affects Julia 0.2 only)

Version 0.5.7 (September 5, 2014)

  • Fix a bug in printing models

Version 0.5.6 (September 2, 2014)

  • Add support for semicontinuous and semi-integer variables for those solvers that support them.
    • Breaking change: Syntax for $Variable()$ constructor has changed (use of this interface remains discouraged)
  • Update for breaking changes in MathProgBase

Version 0.5.5 (July 6, 2014)

  • Fix bug with problem modification: adding variables that did not appear in existing constraints or objective.

Version 0.5.4 (June 19, 2014)

  • Update for breaking change in MathProgBase which reduces loading times for $using JuMP$
  • Fix error when MIPs not solved to optimality

Version 0.5.3 (May 21, 2014)

  • Update for breaking change in ReverseDiffSparse

Version 0.5.2 (May 9, 2014)

  • Fix compatibility with Julia 0.3 prerelease

Version 0.5.1 (May 5, 2014)

  • Fix a bug in coefficient handling inside lazy constraints and user cuts

Version 0.5.0 (May 2, 2014)

  • Support for nonlinear optimization with exact, sparse second-order derivatives automatically computed. Ipopt is currently the only solver supported.
  • $getValue$ for $AffExpr$ and $QuadExpr$
  • Breaking change: $getSolverModel$ replaced by $getInternalModel$, which returns the internal MathProgBase-level model
  • Groups of constraints can be specified with $@addConstraint$ (see documentation for details). This is not a breaking change.
  • $dot(::JuMPDict{Variable},::JuMPDict{Variable})$ now returns the corresponding quadratic expression.

Version 0.4.1 (March 24, 2014)

  • Fix bug where change in objective sense was ignored when re-solving a model.
  • Fix issue with handling zero coefficients in AffExpr.

Version 0.4.0 (March 10, 2014)

  • Support for SOS1 and SOS2 constraints.
  • Solver-independent callback for user heuristics.
  • $dot$ and $sum$ implemented for $JuMPDict$ objects. Now you can say $@addConstraint(m, dot(a,x) <= b)$.
  • Developers: support for extensions to JuMP. See definition of Model in $src/JuMP.jl$ for more details.
  • Option to construct the low-level model before optimizing.

Version 0.3.2 (February 17, 2014)

  • Improved model printing
    • Preliminary support for IJulia output

Version 0.3.1 (January 30, 2014)

  • Documentation updates
    • Support for MOSEK
    • CPLEXLink renamed to CPLEX

Version 0.3.0 (January 21, 2014)

  • Unbounded/infeasibility rays: getValue() will return the corresponding components of an unbounded ray when a model is unbounded, if supported by the selected solver. getDual() will return an infeasibility ray (Farkas proof) if a model is infeasible and the selected solver supports this feature.
  • Solver-independent callbacks for user generated cuts.
  • Use new interface for solver-independent QCQP.
  • $setlazycallback$ renamed to $setLazyCallback$ for consistency.

Version 0.2.0 (December 15, 2013)

  • Breaking change: Objective sense is specified in setObjective instead of in the Model constructor.
  • Breaking change: $lpsolver$ and $mipsolver$ merged into single $solver$ option.
  • Problem modification with efficient LP restarts and MIP warm-starts.
  • Relatedly, column-wise modeling now supported.
  • Solver-independent callbacks supported. Currently we support only a "lazy constraint" callback, which works with Gurobi, CPLEX, and GLPK. More callbacks coming soon.

Version 0.1.2 (November 16, 2013)

  • Bug fixes for printing, improved error messages.
  • Allow $AffExpr$ to be used in macros; e.g., $ex = y + z; @addConstraint(m, x + 2*ex <= 3)$

Version 0.1.1 (October 23, 2013)

  • Update for solver specification API changes in MathProgBase.

Version 0.1.0 (October 3, 2013)

  • Initial public release.