# Sudoku

**This tutorial was originally contributed by Iain Dunning.**

Sudoku is a popular number puzzle. The goal is to place the digits 1 to 9 on a nine-by-nine grid, with some of the digits already filled in. Your solution must satisfy the following rules:

- The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each 3x3 square
- The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each row
- The numbers 1 to 9 must appear in each column

Here is a partially solved Sudoku problem:

Solving a Sudoku isn't an optimization problem with an objective; its actually a *feasibility* problem: we wish to find a feasible solution that satisfies these rules. You can think of it as an optimization problem with an objective of 0.

## Mixed-integer linear programming formulation

We can model this problem using 0-1 integer programming: a problem where all the decision variables are binary. We'll use JuMP to create the model, and then we can solve it with any integer programming solver.

```
using JuMP
using HiGHS
```

We will define a binary variable (a variable that is either 0 or 1) for each possible number in each possible cell. The meaning of each variable is as follows: `x[i,j,k] = 1 if and only if cell (i,j) has number k`

, where `i`

is the row and `j`

is the column.

Create a model

```
sudoku = Model(HiGHS.Optimizer)
set_silent(sudoku)
```

Create our variables

`@variable(sudoku, x[i = 1:9, j = 1:9, k = 1:9], Bin);`

Now we can begin to add our constraints. We'll actually start with something obvious to us as humans, but what we need to enforce: that there can be only one number per cell.

```
for i in 1:9 # For each row
for j in 1:9 # and each column
# Sum across all the possible digits. One and only one of the digits
# can be in this cell, so the sum must be equal to one.
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[i, j, k] for k in 1:9) == 1)
end
end
```

Next we'll add the constraints for the rows and the columns. These constraints are all very similar, so much so that we can actually add them at the same time.

```
for ind in 1:9 # Each row, OR each column
for k in 1:9 # Each digit
# Sum across columns (j) - row constraint
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[ind, j, k] for j in 1:9) == 1)
# Sum across rows (i) - column constraint
@constraint(sudoku, sum(x[i, ind, k] for i in 1:9) == 1)
end
end
```

Finally, we have the to enforce the constraint that each digit appears once in each of the nine 3x3 sub-grids. Our strategy will be to index over the top-left corners of each 3x3 square with `for`

loops, then sum over the squares.

```
for i in 1:3:7
for j in 1:3:7
for k in 1:9
# i is the top left row, j is the top left column.
# We'll sum from i to i+2, for example, i=4, r=4, 5, 6.
@constraint(
sudoku,
sum(x[r, c, k] for r in i:(i+2), c in j:(j+2)) == 1
)
end
end
end
```

The final step is to add the initial solution as a set of constraints. We'll solve the problem that is in the picture at the start of the tutorial. We'll put a `0`

if there is no digit in that location.

The given digits

```
init_sol = [
5 3 0 0 7 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 1 9 5 0 0 0
0 9 8 0 0 0 0 6 0
8 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 3
4 0 0 8 0 3 0 0 1
7 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6
0 6 0 0 0 0 2 8 0
0 0 0 4 1 9 0 0 5
0 0 0 0 8 0 0 7 9
]
for i in 1:9
for j in 1:9
# If the space isn't empty
if init_sol[i, j] != 0
# Then the corresponding variable for that digit and location must
# be 1.
fix(x[i, j, init_sol[i, j]], 1; force = true)
end
end
end
```

solve problem

`optimize!(sudoku)`

Extract the values of x

`x_val = value.(x);`

Create a matrix to store the solution

```
sol = zeros(Int, 9, 9) # 9x9 matrix of integers
for i in 1:9
for j in 1:9
for k in 1:9
# Integer programs are solved as a series of linear programs so the
# values might not be precisely 0 and 1. We can round them to
# the nearest integer to make it easier.
if round(Int, x_val[i, j, k]) == 1
sol[i, j] = k
end
end
end
end
```

Display the solution

`sol`

```
9×9 Matrix{Int64}:
5 3 4 6 7 8 9 1 2
6 7 2 1 9 5 3 4 8
1 9 8 3 4 2 5 6 7
8 5 9 7 6 1 4 2 3
4 2 6 8 5 3 7 9 1
7 1 3 9 2 4 8 5 6
9 6 1 5 3 7 2 8 4
2 8 7 4 1 9 6 3 5
3 4 5 2 8 6 1 7 9
```

Which is the correct solution:

## Constraint programming formulation

We can also model this problem using constraint programming and the all-different constraint, which says that no two elements of a vector can take the same value.

Because of the reformulation system in MathOptInterface, we can still solve this problem using HiGHS.

```
model = Model(HiGHS.Optimizer)
set_silent(model)
# HiGHS v1.2 has a bug in presolve which causes the problem to be classified as
# infeasible.
set_attribute(model, "presolve", "off")
```

Instead of the binary variables, we directly define a 9x9 grid of integer values between 1 and 9:

`@variable(model, 1 <= x[1:9, 1:9] <= 9, Int);`

Then, we enforce that the values in each row must be all-different:

`@constraint(model, [i = 1:9], x[i, :] in MOI.AllDifferent(9));`

That the values in each column must be all-different:

`@constraint(model, [j = 1:9], x[:, j] in MOI.AllDifferent(9));`

And that the values in each 3x3 sub-grid must be all-different:

```
for i in (0, 3, 6), j in (0, 3, 6)
@constraint(model, vec(x[i.+(1:3), j.+(1:3)]) in MOI.AllDifferent(9))
end
```

Finally, as before we set the initial solution and optimize:

```
for i in 1:9, j in 1:9
if init_sol[i, j] != 0
fix(x[i, j], init_sol[i, j]; force = true)
end
end
optimize!(model)
```

Display the solution

`csp_sol = round.(Int, value.(x))`

```
9×9 Matrix{Int64}:
5 3 4 6 7 8 9 1 2
6 7 2 1 9 5 3 4 8
1 9 8 3 4 2 5 6 7
8 5 9 7 6 1 4 2 3
4 2 6 8 5 3 7 9 1
7 1 3 9 2 4 8 5 6
9 6 1 5 3 7 2 8 4
2 8 7 4 1 9 6 3 5
3 4 5 2 8 6 1 7 9
```

Which is the same as we found before:

`sol == csp_sol`

`true`

This tutorial was generated using Literate.jl. View the source `.jl`

file on GitHub.