All of the examples can be found in Jupyter notebook form here.

# Support vector machine

### Support Vector Machine (SVM)

We are given two sets of points in ${\bf R}^n$, $\{x_1, \ldots, x_N\}$ and $\{y_1, \ldots, y_M\}$, and wish to find a function $f(x) = w^T x - b$ that linearly separates the points, i.e. $f(x_i) \geq 1$ for $i = 1, \ldots, N$ and $f(y_i) \leq -1$ for $i = 1, \ldots, M$. That is, the points are separated by two hyperplanes, $w^T x - b = 1$ and $w^T x - b = -1$.

Perfect linear separation is not always possible, so we seek to minimize the amount that these inequalities are violated. The violation of point $x_i$ is $\text{max} \{1 + b - w^T x_i, 0\}$, and the violation of point $y_i$ is $\text{max} \{1 - b + w^T y_i, 0\}$. We tradeoff the error $\sum_{i=1}^N \text{max} \{1 + b - w^T x_i, 0\} + \sum_{i=1}^M \text{max} \{1 - b + w^T y_i, 0\}$ with the distance between the two hyperplanes, which we want to be large, via minimizing $\|w\|^2$.

We can write this problem as

\[\begin{array}{ll} \text{minimize} & \|w\|^2 + C * (\sum_{i=1}^N \text{max} \{1 + b - w^T x_i, 0\} + \sum_{i=1}^M \text{max} \{1 - b + w^T y_i, 0\}) \end{array},\]

where $w \in {\bf R}^n$ and $b \in {\bf R}$ are our optimization variables.

We can solve the problem as follows.

`using Convex, SCS`

```
# Generate data.
n = 2; # dimensionality of data
C = 10; # inverse regularization parameter in the objective
N = 10; # number of positive examples
M = 10; # number of negative examples
using Distributions: MvNormal
# positive data points
pos_data = rand(MvNormal([1.0, 2.0], 1.0), N);
# negative data points
neg_data = rand(MvNormal([-1.0, 2.0], 1.0), M);
```

```
function svm(pos_data, neg_data)
# Create variables for the separating hyperplane w'*x = b.
w = Variable(n)
b = Variable()
# Form the objective.
obj =
sumsquares(w) +
C * sum(max(1 + b - w' * pos_data, 0)) +
C * sum(max(1 - b + w' * neg_data, 0))
# Form and solve problem.
problem = minimize(obj)
solve!(problem, SCS.Optimizer; silent_solver = true)
return evaluate(w), evaluate(b)
end;
```

`w, b = svm(pos_data, neg_data);`

```
# Plot our results.
using Plots
```

Generate the separating hyperplane

```
line_x = -2:0.1:2;
line_y = (-w[1] * line_x .+ b) / w[2];
```

Plot the positive points, negative points, and separating hyperplane.

```
plot(pos_data[1, :], pos_data[2, :], st = :scatter, label = "Positive points")
plot!(neg_data[1, :], neg_data[2, :], st = :scatter, label = "Negative points")
plot!(line_x, line_y, label = "Separating hyperplane")
```

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