# Lyapunov Function Search  Adapted from: SOSTOOLS' SOSDEMO2 (See Section 4.2 of SOSTOOLS User's Manual)

using DynamicPolynomials
@polyvar x[1:3]
(DynamicPolynomials.PolyVar{true}[x₁, x₂, x₃],)

We define below the vector field $\text{d}x/\text{d}t = f$

f = [-x^3 - x * x^2,
-x - x^2 * x,
-x - 3x / (x^2 + 1) + 3x^2 * x]
3-element Vector{MultivariatePolynomials.RationalPoly{DynamicPolynomials.Polynomial{true, Int64}, DynamicPolynomials.Polynomial{true, Int64}}}:
(-x₁³ - x₁x₃²) / (1)
(-x₁²x₂ - x₂) / (1)
(3x₁²x₃³ + 3x₁²x₃ - x₃³ - 4x₃) / (x₃² + 1)

We need to pick an SDP solver, see here for a list of the available choices. We use SOSModel instead of Model to be able to use the >= syntax for Sum-of-Squares constraints.

using SumOfSquares
using CSDP
solver = optimizer_with_attributes(CSDP.Optimizer, MOI.Silent() => true)
model = SOSModel(solver);

We are searching for a Lyapunov function $V(x)$ with monomials $x_1^2$, $x_2^2$ and $x_3^2$. We first define the monomials to be used for the Lyapunov function:

monos = x.^2
3-element Vector{DynamicPolynomials.Monomial{true}}:
x₁²
x₂²
x₃²

We now define the Lyapunov function as a polynomial decision variable with these monomials:

@variable(model, V, Poly(monos))
$$$(_)x_{1}^{2} + (_)x_{2}^{2} + (_)x_{3}^{2}$$$

We need to make sure that the Lyapunov function is strictly positive. We can do this with a constraint $V(x) \ge \epsilon (x_1^2 + x_2^2 + x_3^2)$, let's pick $\epsilon = 1$:

@constraint(model, V >= sum(x.^2))
$$$(_ - 1)x_{1}^{2} + (_ - 1)x_{2}^{2} + (_ - 1)x_{3}^{2} \text{ is SOS}$$$

We now compute $\text{d}V/\text{d}x \cdot f$.

using LinearAlgebra # Needed for dot
dVdt = dot(differentiate(V, x), f)
$$$\frac{(-2 _)x_{1}^{4}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _ + 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2} + (-2 _ + 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{3}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{2}^{2} + (-8 _)x_{3}^{2}}{x_{3}^{2} + 1}$$$

The denominator is $x^2 + 1$ is strictly positive so the sign of dVdt is the same as the sign of its numerator.

P = dVdt.num
$$$(-2 _)x_{1}^{4}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _ + 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2} + (-2 _ + 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (-2 _)x_{3}^{4} + (-2 _)x_{2}^{2} + (-8 _)x_{3}^{2}$$$

Hence, we constrain this numerator to be nonnegative:

@constraint(model, P <= 0)
$$$(2 _)x_{1}^{4}x_{3}^{2} + (2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (2 _ - 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{4} + (2 _)x_{1}^{4} + (2 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{2}^{2} + (2 _ - 6 _)x_{1}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (2 _)x_{2}^{2}x_{3}^{2} + (2 _)x_{3}^{4} + (2 _)x_{2}^{2} + (8 _)x_{3}^{2} \text{ is SOS}$$$

The model is ready to be optimized by the solver:

JuMP.optimize!(model)

We verify that the solver has found a feasible solution:

JuMP.primal_status(model)
FEASIBLE_POINT::ResultStatusCode = 1

We can now obtain this feasible solution with:

value(V)
$$$15.718362431619164x_{1}^{2} + 12.28610732110516x_{2}^{2} + 2.995845325502817x_{3}^{2}$$$